​Excretion

Excretion is the process of waste products of metabolism and other non-useful materials out. It is an essential process in all forms of life. It contrasts secretion, where the substance may have specific tasks after leaving the cell.
In single-celled organisms, waste products are discharged directly through the surface of the cell. Multicelular organisms utilize more complex excretory methods. Higher plants eliminate gases through the stomata, or pores, on the surface of leaves. Animals have special excretory organs

Mammalian excretion

In mammals, the excretory processes are the formation of urine in the kidneys and the formation of carbon dioxide (a mammal's abundant metabolic waste) molecules as a result of respiration, which is then exhaled from the lungs. These waste products are eliminated by urination and exhalation respectively. In urination, hormonal control over excretion occurs in the distal tubules of the kidneys as directed by the hypothalamus. If excretion does not occur in an organism, waste products will accumulate, which will sicken and eventually kill the organism.

In kidney

Main article: Clearance (medicine)
In mammals the main organs of excretion are the kidneys and accessory urinary organs, through which urine is eliminated, and the large intestines, from which solid wastes are expelled. In strict biological terminology, undigested food expelled in the feces is not considered to be excretion, since it is not metabolic waste. Substances secreted into the bile and then eliminated in the feces are considered to be excreted, however. The skin and lungs also have excretory functions: the skin eliminates metabolic wastes like urea and lactic acid through sweating, and the lungs expel carbon dioxide.

Other

  • Mucociliary excretion is the excretion of mucus in the respiratory system.
  • Biliary excretion occurs via the bile which is delivered to the duodenum and removed in the feces.
  • Perspiration is the excretion of salts and water from the body, although the primary purpose is to cool the body.

Non-mammalian


Chemical structure of uric acid. 220px-Uric_Acid_svg.pngexternal image 220px-Feces_and_uric-acid.jpg
In plants, breakdown of substances is much slower than in animals. Hence accumulation of waste is much slower and there are no special organs of excretion. Green plants in darkness or plants that do not contain chlorophyll produce carbon dioxide and water as respiratory waste products. Carbon dioxide released during respiration gets utilized during photosynthesis.Oxygen itself can be thought of as a waste product generated during photosynthesis. Plants can get rid of excess water by transpiration. Waste products may be stored in leaves that fall off. Other waste materials that are exuded by some plants — resins, saps, latexes, etc. are forced from the interior of the plant by hydrostatic pressures inside the plant and by absorptive forces of plant cells. Plants also excrete some waste substances into the soil around them. Excreta is brown in colour.
Aquatic animals usually excrete ammonia directly into the external environment, as this compound has high solubility and there is ample water available for dilution. In terrestrial animals ammonia-like compounds are converted into other nitrogenous materials as there is less water in the environment and ammonia itself is toxic.


White cast of uric acid defecated with the dark feces from a lizard. Insects, birds and some other reptiles also undergo a similar mechanism.
Birds excrete their nitrogenous wastes as uric acid in the form of a paste. This is metabolically more expensive, but allows more efficient water retention and it can be stored more easily in the egg. Many avian species, especially seabirds, can also excrete salt via specialized nasal salt glands, the saline solution leaving through nostrils in the beak.
In insects, a system involving Maligning tubules is utilized to excrete metabolic waste. Metabolic waste diffuses or is actively transported into the tubule, which transports the wastes to the intestines. The metabolic waste is then released from the body along with fecal matter.
Many people misuse the term excretion as a euphemism for defecation, and use excrement for feces, but this is biologically incorrect.


taken from: www.wikipedia.org

EXCRETION ​
Excretion is the transfer of substances out of a living organism into its environment. At its simplest, for single-cell forms of life, this involves extrusion across the cell membrane of the unwanted or potentially toxic by-products of respiration and metabolism. This is also what is happening continually in the individual cells of the animal body, but from their immediate environment substances must move into the blood to be carried away to the site of their ultimate disposal. In the animal body there is also another type of excretion: expulsion of the residue of substances which have not been absorbed into the body proper from the gut (which can be considered a tunnel through the body of the external world).

In human terms ‘excreta’ normally refers only to urine and faeces, whereas the definition of excretion would also include both carbon dioxide and heat, and these will be considered first.
Carbon dioxide
carbon dioxide (CO2), along with water, is the end-product in cells which use oxygen to release their energy supply from food sources, and those cells are in the vast majority. If this CO2 were to accumulate the cells would become too acidic for their internal chemistry to proceed. Continual generation of CO2 maintains a concentration gradient from inside to outside so that it moves by diffusion out of the cells into the surrounding fluid, and thence into the blood in the nearby capillaries. So the blood picks up CO2 as it circulates, until it converges from the whole body into the right side of the heart, carrying an amount of CO2 which varies with the total rate of energy release by body cells. This venous blood, low in oxygen and high in CO2, is pumped through the lungs, where CO2 is excreted by the reverse process to that of its uptake from cells — it diffuses out down a gradient, because breathing keeps the concentration lower in the gas in the lungs than it is in the incoming blood.
Heat
Heat is continually generated by resting metabolic activity, and to a much greater extent by working muscles. Unless conservation of body heat is required in cold conditions to maintain body temperature, it is ‘excreted’ from the surface of the body when there is a temperature gradient from the skin to the environment. This gradient, and therefore heat loss, is regulated by the mechanisms for temperature regulation: dilation of skin blood vessels brings heat to the surface and increases the gradient; when this mechanism is inadequate, sweating comes into play as well.
Excretion in the urine
The kidneys are responsible for filtering off a continual sample of the watery component of the blood plasma, with its solutes, at a rate equivalent to the whole of the plasma volume about every twenty minutes. The further processes within the kidneys could be likened to ‘quality control’ and correction. Not only the filtered water, but also many dissolved substances, are largely reabsorbed, but the reabsorption is fine-tuned according to any need for correction of the blood composition; nitrogenous waste (mainly urea) from protein breakdown is allowed to escape, and waste acid (H+) and other substances present in excess are actively secreted into the urine. The end result is production of urine at a variable rate depending on fluid intake, but on average less than one-hundredth the rate of filtration of fluid from the blood, and containing all that needs to be excreted minute by minute.
Excretion from the bowel
That which is voided consists of the residue that remains after digestion and absorption of food breakdown products in the stomach and small intestine, and after absorption of most of the remaining water in the large intestine. This is also the route for voiding of cholesterol, excreted by the liver into the bile. The colour of the faeces is derived from bile pigments: although these are recycled to a large extent, the remainder becomes stercobilin and leaves by this route.



nutrients:
A nutrient is a chemical known as T.H.O>or C that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organism's metabolism which must be taken in from its environment.[1] Nutrients are the substances that enrich the body. They build and repair tissues, give heat and energy, and regulate body processes. Methods for nutrient intake vary, with animals and protists consuming foods that are digested by an internal digestive system, but most plants ingest nutrients directly from the soil through their roots or from the atmosphere. Some plants, like carnivorous plants, externally digest nutrients from animals, before ingesting them. The effects of nutrients are dose-dependent.
Organic nutrients include carbohydrates, fats, proteins (or their building blocks, amino acids), and vitamins. Inorganic chemical compounds such as dietary minerals, water, and oxygen may also be considered nutrients.[citation needed] A nutrient is essential to an organism if it cannot be synthesized by the organism in sufficient quantities and must be obtained from an external source. Nutrients needed in large quantities are called macronutrients; micronutrients are required in only small quantities.
See healthy diet for more information on the role of nutrients in human nutrition.
A nutrient is a chemical known as T.H.O>or C that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organism's metabolism which must be taken in from its environment.[1] Nutrients are the substances that enrich the body. They build and repair tissues, give heat and energy, and regulate body processes. Methods for nutrient intake vary, with animals and protists consuming foods that are digested by an internal digestive system, but most plants ingest nutrients directly from the soil through their roots or from the atmosphere. Some plants, like carnivorous plants, externally digest nutrients from animals, before ingesting them. The effects of nutrients are dose-dependent.
Organic nutrients include carbohydrates, fats, proteins (or their building blocks, amino acids), and vitamins. Inorganic chemical compounds such as dietary minerals, water, and oxygen may also be considered nutrients.[citation needed] A nutrient is essential to an organism if it cannot be synthesized by the organism in sufficient quantities and must be obtained from an external source. Nutrients needed in large quantities are called macronutrients; micronutrients are required in only small quantities.
See healthy diet for more information on the role of nutrients in human nutrition.
external image 220px-Nutrient-cycle_hg.png
taken from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutrient

Excretion is the transfer of substances out of a living organism into its environment. At its simplest, for single-cell forms of life, this involves extrusion across the cell membrane of the unwanted or potentially toxic by-products of respiration and metabolism. This is also what is happening continually in the individual cells of the animal body, but from their immediate environment substances must move into the blood to be carried away to the site of their ultimate disposal. In the animal body there is also another type of excretion: expulsion of the residue of substances which have not been absorbed into the body proper from the gut (which can be considered a tunnel through the body of the external world).

In human terms ‘excreta’ normally refers only to urine and faeces, whereas the definition of excretion would also include both carbon dioxide and heat, and these will be considered first.
carbon dioxide (CO2), along with water, is the end-product in cells which use oxygen to release their energy supply from food sources, and those cells are in the vast majority. If this CO2 were to accumulate the cells would become too acidic for their internal chemistry to proceed. Continual generation of CO2 maintains a concentration gradient from inside to outside so that it moves by diffusion out of the cells into the surrounding fluid, and thence into the blood in the nearby capillaries. So the blood picks up CO2 as it circulates, until it converges from the whole body into the right side of the heart, carrying an amount of CO2 which varies with the total rate of energy release by body cells. This venous blood, low in oxygen and high in CO2, is pumped through the lungs, where CO2 is excreted by the reverse process to that of its uptake from cells — it diffuses out down a gradient, because breathing keeps the concentration lower in the gas in the lungs than it is in the incoming blood.
Heat
Heat is continually generated by resting metabolic activity, and to a much greater extent by working muscles. Unless conservation of body heat is required in cold conditions to maintain body temperature, it is ‘excreted’ from the surface of the body when there is a temperature gradient from the skin to the environment. This gradient, and therefore heat loss, is regulated by the mechanisms for temperature regulation: dilation of skin blood vessels brings heat to the surface and increases the gradient; when this mechanism is inadequate, sweating comes into play as well.
Excretion in the urine
The kidneys are responsible for filtering off a continual sample of the watery component of the blood plasma, with its solutes, at a rate equivalent to the whole of the plasma volume about every twenty minutes. The further processes within the kidneys could be likened to ‘quality control’ and correction. Not only the filtered water, but also many dissolved substances, are largely reabsorbed, but the reabsorption is fine-tuned according to any need for correction of the blood composition; nitrogenous waste (mainly urea) from protein breakdown is allowed to escape, and waste acid (H+) and other substances present in excess are actively secreted into the urine. The end result is production of urine at a variable rate depending on fluid intake, but on average less than one-hundredth the rate of filtration of fluid from the blood, and containing all that needs to be excreted minute by minute.
Excretion from the bowel
That which is voided consists of the residue that remains after digestion and absorption of food breakdown products in the stomach and small intestine, and after absorption of most of the remaining water in the large intestine. This is also the route for voiding of cholesterol, excreted by the liver into the bile. The colour of the faeces is derived from bile pigments: although these are recycled to a large extent, the remainder becomes stercobilin and leaves by this route.
http://www.answers.com/topic/excretion