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Human respiratory system .


Humans need a continuous supply of oxygen for cellular respiration, and they must get rid of excess carbon dioxide, the poisonous waste product of this process. Gas exchange supports the supports this cellular respiration by constantly supplying oxygen and removing carbon dioxide. The oxygen we need is derived from the Earth's atmosphere, which is 21% oxygen. This oxygen in the air is exchanged in the body by the respiratory surface. In humans the alveoli in the lungs serve as the surface for gas exchange.
Gas exchange in humans can be divided into five steps:

  1. Breathing
  2. External Respiration
  3. Gas Transportation
  4. Internal Respiration
  5. Cellular Respiration
Other factors invloved with respiration are:
  • Adaptations of Diving Mammals
  • Bohr Shift
  • Control of Breathing
  • Partial Pressure
  • Structure of respiratory System
taken from http://www.cdli.ca/~dpower/resp/main.htm


acuatic respiration

is the process whereby an aquatic animal obtains oxygen from water.
Earth's natural bodies of water have a low oxygen concentration—much lower than the level of oxygen in air at the
Earth's surface. Smaller organisms can obtain sufficient oxygen through the skin (e.g. flatworms), but larger organisms require special structures to collect enough oxygen to sustain life. This oxygen comes from molecules of oxygen gas (O2) dissolved in the water. The oxygen atom present in the water molecule (H2O) is not suitable for respiration.
Fish have developed gills for respiration which have:

  • Large surface area which is needed for more oxygen to get in.
  • high blood flow
  • small/short diffusion distances
  • contain 4 gill arches (Bony fishes), two gill arches (Cartilaginous fish) or 7 gill baskets (Lampreys) on each side of the fish's head
  • each gill arch has 2 rows (hemibranchs) of gill filaments
  • each gill filament has many lamellae
Respiration may refer to:





cell respiration
Cellular respiration, also known as 'oxidative metabolism', is one of the key ways a cell gains useful energy. It is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in organisms' cells to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions that involve the oxidation of one molecule and the reduction of another.
Nutrients commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and a common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). Bacteria and archaea can also be lithotrophs and these organisms may respire using a broad range of inorganic molecules as electron donors and acceptors, such as sulfur, metal ions, methane or hydrogen. Organisms that use oxygen as a final electron acceptor in respiration are described as aerobic, while those that do not are referred to as anaerobic[1].
The energy released in respiration is used to synthesize ATP to store this energy. The energy stored in ATP can then be used to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis, locomotion or transportation of molecules across cell membranes.



Respiration is the release of energy from glucose or another organic chemical. The chemical energy in glucose can be used to provide the energy required for growth, repair and movement. In fact most things you do require energy. Ask MRS GREN.
Aerobic Respiration is the normal form of respiration. It requires oxygen and releases the most energy from glucose. 1Mole of Glucose produces 2830 Kilojoules of energy. When we respire like this we have to breathe oxygen in and breathe carbon dioxide out. We also have to excrete (get rid of) the extra water in our urine.
Anaerobic Respiration also releases energy from glucose but not so much I mole of glucose will produce 118 Kilojoules of energy. When yeast respires anaerobically it produces carbon dioxide and alcohol. When we respire we produce lactic acid. Too much lactic acid poisons our muscles (you get cramp).
Summary:
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Respiration: * is the release of energy from food,
  • takes place in animal and plant cells.
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Aerobic Respiration requires: * Glucose,
  • Oxygen.
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Anaerobic Respiration requires: * Glucose.
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Aerobic Respiration produces: * Energy,
  • Carbon Dioxide,
  • Water.
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Anaerobic Respiration produces: * Energy (not as much),
  • Carbon Dioxide,
  • Lactic Acid or Alcohol.

I hope that you will be able to remember most of the facts on this page, but you must memorise the definition of photosynthesis. Write it on a small index card. Put the red words on one side of the card and the blue ones on the other. Add the card to your revision pack.
Respiration is the release of energy from glucose or another organic chemical.
Aerobic Respiration requires oxygen.
Anaerobic Respiration does not require oxygen and releases less energy.
taken from.http://www.sambal.co.uk/respiration.html

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to:navigation, searchexternal image 300px-CellRespiration.svg.pngexternal image magnify-clip.pngCellular respiration in a typical eukaryotic cell.
Cellular respiration, also known as 'oxidative metabolism', is one of the key ways a cell gains useful energy. It is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in organisms' cells to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions that involve the oxidation of one molecule and the reduction of another.
Nutrients commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and a common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). Bacteria and archaea can also be lithotrophs and these organisms may respire using a broad range of inorganic molecules as electron donors and acceptors, such as sulfur, metal ions, methane or hydrogen. Organisms that use oxygen as a final electron acceptor in respiration are described as aerobic, while those that do not are referred to as anaerobic[1].
The energy released in respiration is used to synthesize ATP to store this energy. The energy stored in ATP can then be used to drive processes requiring energy, including biosynthesis, locomotion or transportation of