what is the living thing nutrition?
Nutrition itself is the series of processes by which an organism takes in nutrients and makes use of them for its survival, growth, and development. The term nutrition also can refer to the study of nutrients, their consumption, and their processing in the bodies of organisms. Here the general term organism has been used, but for the most part the present essay is concerned with animal nutrition, or at least the nutrition of primary consumers (animals that eat plants) and secondary consumers (animals that eat other animals).

Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy diet.
The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the perceived palatability of foods. Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in human nutrition, meal planning, economics, and preparation. They are trained to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice and management to individuals (in health and disease), as well as to institutions.
A poor diet can have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy, beriberi and kwashiorkor; health-threatening conditions like obesity and metaboli syndrome, and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease] diabetes, and osteoporosis.


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nutrients
There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, minerals, protein, vitamins, and water.
These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients include carbohydrates, fats, fiber, protein, and water. The micronutrients are minerals and vitamins.
The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino acids from which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling molecules are built), energy. Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories (often called "Calories" and written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories). Carbohydrates and proteins provide 17 kJ approximately (4 kcal) of energy per gram, while fats provide 37 kJ (9 kcal) per gram, though the net energy from either depends on such factors as absorption and digestive effort, which vary substantially from instance to instance. Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons. A third class of dietary material, fiber (i.e., non-digestible material such as cellulose), is also required, for both mechanical and biochemical reasons, although the exact reasons remain unclear.
Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are triglycerides, made of assorted fatty acid monomers bound to glycerol backbone. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids, some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally. Some of the amino acids are convertible (with the expenditure of energy) to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose in a process known as gluconeogenesis By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can be produced internally; the remaining amino acids are discarded, primarily as urea in urine. This occurs normally only during prolonged starvation.
Other micronutrients include antioxidants and phytochemicals, which are said to influence (or protect) some body systems. Their necessity is not as well established as in the case of, for instance, vitamins.
Most foods contain a mix of some or all of the nutrient classes, together with other substances, such as toxins of various sorts. Some nutrients can be stored internally (e.g., the fat soluble vitamins), while others are required more or less continuously. Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients or, in extreme cases, too much of a required nutrient. For example, both salt and water(both absolutely required) will cause illness or even death in excessive amounts.




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living thing nutrition​

Probiotics are rapidly becoming a popular and important tool for preserving our natural health. The concept that probiotics are based on however is not a new one. In her book "Bacteria For Breakfast" Dr. Kelly Karpa says, " Fermented milk products which contain probiotics have been used for centuries. According to Persian tradition, Abraham of the Old Testament owed his longevity to ingestion of fermented milk. King Francis I of France was reportedly cured of an illness after eating yogurt in the early 1500's... So you see this "probiotic stuff "isn't new. Probiotics have been around for more than 5000 years."
The basic concept behind probiotics is that your body is host to microorganisms or bacteria known as gut flora that are essential to your health. Substances containing these microbes can be taken as a way to improve your beneficial microbial population. Probiotics have become an important part of nutrition because our microbial populations have been altered by the use of antibiotics and other substances that are designed to kill germs and disease. While practices, such as antibiotics, are effective at killing germs and disease, they are also effective in killing your beneficial bacteria. By introducing friendly microbes to your gut flora you can strengthen your resident micro flora. Although, probiotics have not proven to be effective at taking up residence themselves, they can strengthen your resident friendly microbes over a period of time.
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Nobel Prize Winner, Ellie Metchnikoff

The 1908 Nobel Prize Winner, Ellie Metchnikoff showed that phagocytes destroy harmful bacteria in our bodies. The study of beneficial bacteria lead the Russian microbiologist to start drinking fermented milk and yogurt. Metchnikoff experienced improved health and well-being.
Metchnikoff studied the phenomenon of an incredible amount of people in Bulgaria living to be over 100 years old. He attributed their health and longevity to a microbe in the widely eaten Bulgarian yogurt, and he named the yogurt culturing microbe after the Bulgarians - Lactobacillus Bulgaricus.
Lactobacillus Bulgaricus is just one of one of the microbes that have been shown to be beneficial to our health. The scientific names for microbes always include the genus and species names and sometimes include a strain. Microbes considered to be beneficial to the human body include the
genus names, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces. Specific microbes include: Lactobacilus bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. rueteri, Streptococcus lactis, S. citrovorus, Bifobacterium bifidium, Saccharomyces boulardii and others.



PROTEIN​



Proteins are the basis of many animal body structures (e.g. muscles, skin, and hair). They also form the enzymes that control chemical reactions throughout the body. Each molecule is composed of amino acids, which are characterized by inclusion of nitrogen and sometimes sulphur (these components are responsible for the distinctive smell of burning protein, such as the keratin in hair). The body requires amino acids to produce new proteins (protein retention) and to replace damaged proteins (maintenance). As there is no protein or amino acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet. Excess amino acids are discarded, typically in the urine. For all animals, some amino acids are essential (an animal cannot produce them internally) and some are non-essential (the animal can produce them from other nitrogen-containing compounds). About twenty amino acids are found in the human body, and about ten of these are essential and, therefore, must be included in the diet. A diet that contains adequate amounts of amino acids (especially those that are essential) is particularly important in some situations: during early development and maturation, pregnancy, lactation, or injury (a burn, for instance). A complete protein source contains all the essential amino acids; an incomplete protein source lacks one or more of the essential amino acids.

It is possible to combine two incomplete protein sources (e.g. rice and beans) to make a complete protein source, and characteristic combinations are the basis of distinct cultural cooking traditions. Sources of dietary protein include meats, tofu and other soy-products, eggs, legumes, and dairy products such as milk and cheese. Excess amino acids from protein can be converted into glucose and used for fuel through a process called gluconeogenesis. The amino acids remaining after such conversion are discarded.
external image 220px-LemonChicken2.jpg external image magnify-clip.pngtaken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutrition#Protein



Fat

Main article: fat
A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty fat (containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms), bonded to a glycerol. They are typically found as triglyceridessaturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved. Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded, so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length. Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated (one double-bond) or polyunsaturated (many double-bonds). Furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans-isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called (partial) hydrogenation.[citation needed] There are nine kilocalories in each gram of fat.[citation needed] (three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone). Fats may be classified as
Saturated fats (typically from animal sources) have been a staple in many world cultures for millennia.[citation needed] Unsaturated fats (e. g., vegetable oil) are considered healthier, while trans fats are to be avoided.[citation needed] Saturated and some trans fats are typically solid at room temperature (such as butter or lard), while unsaturated fats are typically liquids (such as olive oil or flaxseed oil). Trans fats are very rare in nature, and have been shown to be highly detrimental to human health, but have properties useful in the food processing[citation needed] industry, such as rancidity resistance.
[edit] Essential fatty acids
Main article: Essential fatty acids
Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can produce them as needed, generally from other fatty acids and always by expending energy to do so. However, in humans, at least two fatty acids are essential and must be included in the diet.[citation needed]omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids—seems also important for health,[citation needed] although definitive experimental demonstration has been elusive. Both of these "omega" long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are substrates for a class of eicosanoids known as prostaglandins, which have roles throughout the human body.[citation needed] They are hormones, in some respects. The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which can be made in the human body from the omega-3 essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (LNA), or taken in through marine food sources,[citation needed] serves as a building block for series 3 prostaglandins (e.g. weakly inflammatory PGE3). The omega-6 dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) serves as a building block for series 1 prostaglandins (e.g. anti-inflammatory PGE1), whereas arachidonic acid (AA) serves as a building block for series 2 prostaglandins (e.g. pro-inflammatory PGE 2).[citation needed] Both DGLA and AA can be made from the omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) in the human body, or can be taken in directly through food.[citation needed] An appropriately balanced intake of omega-3 and omega-6 partly determines the relative production of different prostaglandins, which is one reason why a balance between omega-3 and omega-6 is believed important for cardiovascular health.[citation needed] In industrialized societies, people typically consume large amounts of processed vegetable oils, which have reduced amounts of the essential fatty acids along with too much of omega-6 fatty acids relative to omega-3 fatty acids. An appropriate balance of essential fatty acids—
The conversion rate of omega-6 DGLA to AA largely determines the production of the prostaglandins PGE1 and PGE2. Omega-3 EPA prevents AA from being released from membranes, thereby skewing prostaglandin balance away from pro-inflammatory PGE2 (made from AA) toward anti-inflammatory PGE1 (made from DGLA).[citation needed] Moreover, the conversion (desaturation) of DGLA to AA is controlled by the enzyme delta-5-desaturase,[citation needed] which in turn is controlled by hormones such as insulin (up-regulation) and glucagon (down-regulation).[citation needed] The amount and type of carbohydrates consumed, along with some types of amino acid, can influence processes involving insulin, glucagon, and other hormones; therefore the ratio of omega-3 versus omega-6 has wide effects on general health, and specific effects on immune function and inflammation, and mitosis (i.e. cell division).
taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutrition#Protein




plants nutrition


Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth. A nutrient that is able to limit plant growth according to Liebig's law of the minimum, is considered an essential plant nutrient if the plant can not complete its full life cycle without it. There are 16 essential plant nutrients. Carbon and oxygen are absorbed from the air, while other nutrients including water are obtained from the soil. Plants must obtain the following mineral nutrients from the soil:
  • the three prim ary macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
  • the three secondary macronutrients such as calcium(Ca), sulfur (S), magnesium (Mg).
  • the macronutrient Silicon (Si)
  • and micronutrients or trace minerals: boron (B), chlorine (Cl), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo) selenium (Se), and sodium (Na).
The macronutrients are consumed in larger quantities and are present in plant tissue in quantities from 0.2% to 4.0% (on a dry matter weight basis). Micronutrients are present in plant tissue in quantities measured in parts per million, ranging from 5 to 200 ppm, or less than 0.02% dry weight .
Man artificially modifies soil through the addition of fertilizer to promote vigorous growth and increase yield. The plants are able to obtain their required nutrients from the fertilizer added to the soil. Besides lack of water and sunshine, nutrient deficiency is a major growth limiting factor.
Plant nutrition is a difficult subject to understand completely, partially because of the variation between different plants and even between different species or individuals of a given clone. An element present at a low level may cause deficiency symptoms, while the same element at a higher level may cause toxicity. Further, deficiency of one element may present as symptoms of toxicity from another element. An abundance of one nutrient may cause a deficiency of another nutrient.

type of nutrition

1. Autotrophic nutrition Auto (self) tropic (refers to feeding and nutrition) “Self feeding.” Organisms that make their own organic compounds
this means that the plants make their own food by
the authotropic nutrition , some of the functions to do the
autotrophic nutrition are: -photsynthesis
- chemosyntesis
these are the processes that the plants need to make
their own food in the photosynthesis the plants use
the light and the water taken from the floor and the
they make the all process and finally they feed
themselves.

taken from: dictionary of english espanish norma and simon blandon


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taken from : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_nutrition



NUTRIENTS AND NUTRITION
CONCEPT:
In the modern world people are accustomed to hearing a great deal about nutrients and nutrition. Words such as protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, and fats are a regular part of daily life, yet few people who talk about these nutrients really know what they are. In fact, these are the basic building blocks of nutrition, whereby animal life is sustained. Whereas plants can get their energy directly from the Sun and the atmosphere, animals (including humans) depend on other organisms to provide them with nutrition. These other organisms include plants, which generate carbohydrates as a result of photosynthesis, as well as other animals that eat plants and thereby build proteins and fats. Plants also may contain proteins and fats, and both plants and animals contain vitamins and minerals. These nutrients, consumed in the proper forms and proportions, sustain life and prevent the miseries of malnutrition—a condition that can involve either under nourishment or over nourishment.

nutrition
not only nourishes the human being do all from the cell bodies to the animals
animals
When living heterotrophs, animals can not manufacture their food and therefore need to ingest in your body by introducing living organisms or remains of other living beings, ie comer.Los need food that they eat must be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, ie, must be transformed to extract the nutrients nutrients necesitan.Las cells obtained from the digestion of food must be carried to the cells. In more complex animals is the blood of the circulatory system which is responsible for this misiónSegún the kind of food they eat, we can classify animals into three groups:
1.Herbívoros: feed on plants or parts of them (fruit, seeds, leaves, branches ...). They are herbivores cow, giraffe ...2.Carnívoros: eat other animals. They are carnivorous lion, eagle ...3.Omnívoros: eat both plant and animal foods. Humans are omnivores, also bear.


the cells: are classified into large and small agree with that so is its nutritionfor small dishes and 2 types of nutricon: diffusion: is the movement of particles of a medium of greater concentration to one of greater concentrationosmosis is the movement of water through the cell membrane
and when the cell is great nutrition is by endocytosis and from this there are two types of endocytosisphagocytosis: occurs when the substances ingested are very largepinocytosis: occurs whenthe substances are not so great

plants
The role of nutrition is one of the most important of all living beings. To function, all of them, need to replace energy lost in various activities such as: growth, development and reproduction. Plants are autotrophic organisms unlike animals. Through photosynthesis, green plants, some bacteria and algae, take and use the sun's energy to convert inorganic matter in its external environment in organic matter that then used for development and growth. <br>Green plants, some bacteria and unicellular algae are the only living with the property to manufacture their own food. Why do the mechanism called photosynthesis, which is to transform solar energy into chemical energy. To meet this process plants and vegetables and mineral salts combine water with carbon dioxide that enters through the leaf pores or stomata. <br>The outcome of this procedure, the plants obtain their food and release oxygen into the atmosphere. All the food produced is stored or circulated and used by plants for further development, growth and reproduction. <br>The land plants absorb water and minerals dissolved in it through using hairs arranged in their roots. Once inside the plant, the raw sap is transferred from the roots to the leaves through a conducting tissue, consisting of a complex system of timber vessels, called xylem.



taken from http://www.scribd.com/doc/10163245/La-Nutricion-en-Los-Animales-un-mini-resumen http://blogjardineria.com/la-nutricion-de-las-plantas-y-vegetales/